The Environment Post : Our earth is facing massive environmental damages and because of that the situation of Global warming is increasing day by day. There are lots of glaring effects of Global warming and humans are witness of all these effects. If we take a look at the effects of global warming then it causes ice peaks melt, leading to a rise in the sea level and this in turn can lead to coastal cities getting submerged under water. Global warming also changes the monsoon pattern in many places on the earth. Change in rainfall pattern, in turn adversely affects agricultural input in various regions of the world. With that wind patterns are also affected by global warming, resulting in climate change. Rising temperatures will deal a death blow to several forms of micro-organisms.
Action Plans: Rio de Janeiro Convention
Almost all the countries are dealing with the issue of global warming and to discuss about various actions plans, conventions and summits took place in the world. The convention on Climate Change, which was signed at Rio de Janeiro in the year 1992, imposes an obligation on signatory states to take effective steps to reduce the emission of Greenhouse gases so as to protect the earth and its atmosphere from Global warming. The goal of this Rio de Janeiro convention was to establish a new and equitable global partnership through the creation of new levels of cooperation among states, key sectors of societies and people. Recognizing the integral and interdependent nature of the earth, our home proclaims that, “Human beings are at the center of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.”
Stockholm Declaration, 1972
The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment organized at Stockholm from 5 to 16 June 1972. The objective of this declaration is to have a need for a common outlook and for common principles to inspire and guide the people of the world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment. Under this convention, it was discussed that local and national government will bear the burden for large scale environmental policies and action within their jurisdiction. International cooperation is also needed in order to raise resources to support the developing countries in carrying out their responsibilities in this field.
Most environmentally damaging activities are carried on by large corporations. It is essential that there exist legislative and judicial safe guards to ensure that they compensate for such damages.
‘Polluter Pays’ Principles
‘Polluter Pays’ principle means that pollutes will pay the damages. This principle implies that a polluter is required to bear the remedial costs of pollution, besides paying compensation to the victims of the pollution. Not only has the polluter born the costs of the harm that he has caused to the environment he must also ensure that the environment is restored to its original state. Under this principle, it doesn’t mean that a polluter gets a right to damage the environment and then he will pay the damages. This is now the part of fundamental environmental jurisprudence in India and is also embodied in principle of the Stockholm Declaration. 1972 and Rio Declaration, 1992.
To have minimal effects of the environmental damages, and also to deal with all the issues related to environment, the environment audit is necessary. It is basically an exercise of self assessment to minimize the pollution potential. It is systematic, documented and objective process. These are all the action plans and remedial measures, being taken by the countries to tackle issue of environmental damages.